Monday, July 26, 2010

How to reduce the lead time ---- to the world-class manufacturing of the third practice

"Product delivery more and more difficult to control, how to we actually do?" In the consultation process to the customer, this problem has become the focus of the manufacturing sector generally reflect and first look at the following allow enterprises to headache:
A production of mobile phone chip business, said: According to market demand, the design of faster and faster chips, but the delivery slower;
A production of functional coatings business, said: normally expect from a product off the assembly line up to vote as long as five hours, while the four-day customer requirements (originally seven days) delivery is still not satisfied;
Food production, said a company: product variety is changing rapidly, but difficult to arrange the production schedule;
A metal container production enterprises, said: great seasonal products, the production season is difficult to deliver goods on time, leading to many orders can not meet a lot of opportunities lost;
Described as "no orders to worry about, with orders to worry about, do not worry orders see more worry!"

The emergence of this issue is not surprising, because the planned economy was replaced ruthless market economy; as a seller's market to be replaced by a buyer's market; as by-stock approach has become to-order production processes; because of mass production gradually lost its competitiveness and turn Small Batch Production; because the customer is not only concerned about the quality of products also concerned about the price and delivery time; more because the lure of profit led to increased competition, etc., which causes a lot of accumulated experience and strengths will soon become vulnerable up Management also because a number of uncertainties become complex and difficult to control. These problems is not terrible, but afraid many companies relying on luck and can not face these problems and do not find effective solutions to these problems on the enterprise involved in the improvement of the lead, this article on how to reduce lead time to do related Discussion.

Manufacturing production process in general can be summarized as shown below and in accordance with the corresponding stages of analysis and discussion

銆?銆怬rder processing from the enterprise point of view, I hope the better order, but whether the timely delivery of each order are not necessarily, so companies need to be assessed for each order (not referring to commercial negotiations with customers, These basic agreement with customers, mainly around the time of delivery and quantity assessment), or enterprises to bear the liability for breach, it became a trading losses. Seems, at this stage there is no lead at all, in fact, the great management articles. Sales order processing, we must first know the company has established production plan, if approved in accordance with information to hand as short as a few hours, as many days, if the inserting of production, the situation is more complex, the planning department to conduct analysis on the production plan to adjust, to see whether they have inserted a single production (equipment, resources, human resources, raw materials inventory and the expected procurement plan, etc.), because many orders are interspersed, especially in more complex production process, production processes and more companies confirm production plans more difficult, if not smooth and efficient approval process orders and means of using information often delays, from the customer's point of view, it very difficult to price, quantity, quality, specifications and so has been a clear case wait a few days next time to know delivery time, it directly affect customers of the business plan, 鎵?互 first stage of assessment in order to shorten lead time, even if the original basis on a half-day or one day in advance, Yeshi great breakthrough indeed. To achieve this goal, in fact to change the planning department and sales department of collaborative relationships, and improved collaboration and efficiency, if the plan 閮ㄩ棬 rapid delivery of sales needed ones not only Nenggoujiakuai signed contract cycle accordingly while Ke Yi improve long-term customer relationship, which is crucial for enterprises of.

銆愩? Production planning production planning formulation of difficulty is affected by many uncertain factors, such as small-volume demand for more variety in addition to frequent cancellation and change orders (quantity, size, etc.), but also increase the planned randomness but no plan of production is difficult to imagine, precisely because this conflict lengthened the planning cycle, resulted in the timely delivery. From a managerial point of view, the production plan of the development cycle, there is a substantial improvement is difficult, because each change of production factors will affect the results and the actual production, the manual scheduling and experience can not meet the requirements, so it is necessary from the means and tools to improve the application, but the theory has been verified.

Theory of Constraints (Theory of Constraints, TOC) in the production plan of arrangement had been fully used, of course, realized through computer systems, or as when the first artillery shells fired to launch ballistic parameters calculated as feasible. Theory of Constraints is the founder of E 路 M 路 Goldratt a simple but effective Dr. analogy to explain his theory, Ji Zuo a chain compared to Qi Ye, as the chain Zhong Lian Jie Department to work in all form of a complete system Shi chain capable of delivering tremendous power as a competitive enterprises in all branches and departments working together, produce large amounts of profits for the company. Used in production, can be interpreted as the operation in production there will be a potential constraint in somewhere, that limit productivity within the supply chain links, each link of production will have at least one of them. Constraints may be a crucial part of the work center, a skilled worker or a skill is difficult to prepare for the production of special materials. But no matter what the situation is, operation of the production limitations and whether the enterprise has 鑳藉姏 to effectively meet customer requirements and Shi Ying prices and costs are directly related, enterprises must produce Yingxiangzhiqian in Zhexie restrictions first went to control them. So, based on the theory advanced scheduling TOC Management System (APS) was born and obtain sustainable development, such as the world's largest solutions provider of medium-sized manufacturing company MAPICS is particularly developed in the field of professional and mature.
In this way, the planning department can in a very short time (minutes) taken into account, in accordance with the requirements Lai Mei Ge customer De Bu Tong orders of the fastest delivery Shi Jian, Jiang Xinxizhunque also available to Xiaoshoubumen and decision-making departments, while production planning simulation adjustment and development of the actual production plan, so since the plan will shorten the development cycle, and become more feasible to realize the plan of the improvements in advance!

Procurement plan銆?銆恌ormed a clear production plan, followed to determine the material requirements and procurement plans. Do the actual operation process, the purchasing department can order according to each individual purchase, otherwise it will lead to increased costs and unreasonable procurement inventory, and some need to import raw materials and spare parts, and some materials need to contract manufacturing and production, and some materials stocks are barriers inventory, procurement cycle is different, how to ensure normal production expenses? Stock up too much money too much, too little inventory impact of production and delay in delivery, in accordance with the ERP in the MRP calculation results, often only as a reference, because there is no excess production capacity of enterprises to consider factors, in the actual production Managers will be adjusted, also led to adjustment of procurement plans, results in reduced efficiency, how to solve this problem, both to optimize business processes, improve management standards of accidents start with the one hand, based on the application of APS to run MRP, so The results of the feasibility of greatly improved accuracy and, in fact, lead also to improve the procurement. Of course, the purchasing department itself to change the collaborative relationships with suppliers can also improve the procurement lead time, such as the Harbin Beer Group on the purchase of hops, hops suppliers consignment of the way, greatly improve the efficiency of both sides, many paint companies are taking a similar approach , the company installed a number of emulsion irrigation, suppliers replenish stocks at any time according to business usage, so that business use of key raw materials and components had no worries. In short, to improve the procurement lead time, for ex-shown, not only to change the internal operating procedures and norms, and the use of information systems, Tongshi should improve supply chain management.

銆愩? Many companies produce products to prepare many different types of the same production line or process a variety of semi-finished or finished product is very common, so that in the production process of production preparation stage, such as tool replacement, replacement of the mold, the adjustment process routes and parameters , skilled arrangements, spare parts in the warehouse of the exchange, there is equipment, chemical industry, container cleaning, etc., will impact on production lead time. For the discrete manufacturing industries, the design of standardized components as possible is an effective way, for as central air conditioning, large machinery and equipment, the demand for personalized ones, almost every order is different BOM, so need to design more consideration to the core components of the process of standardization, there are many non-standard parts, using contract manufacturing approach will reduce the company's own production of pressure on the lead role in strengthening the protection of play. Production preparation cycle has a relationship directly with the plan, plan well, prepare an orderly, efficient, production ready soon because some industries, such as mechanical processing, but some of the industry is very time-consuming, poorly planned arrangement is tantamount to a waste of resources .

銆?銆怭roduction process and then into the production, processing or assembly stages. Previous production, I hope the same product with the production schedule, it seems to reduce the switching costs, but there are a lot of lead time in terms of negative factors. If only one or two the whole process, or product change very little, of course, each production plan for each order or production of larger quantities appointment, but the process much more complex business processes, need to order the uncertainty to consider the issue. For example, each production batch great, but were unable to operate with insufficient raw materials inventory, or Houmian processes in a wait state, processing period becomes Zhang Zhe Yang, Keyikaolv the large volume Tiaozheng into small batch production, the Government can ensure the continuity of production sex, on the other hand if the order is canceled or changed, can reduce losses, while for some manufacturing industries, but also can effectively control the number of WIP, backlog for capital, flexible arrangements for production is very good. Based on these, it is necessary the help of good information management platform, or entirely by artificial arrangements are difficult to achieve. In addition, some enterprises under the orders of production, can change the collaborative relationships with customers, but also by way of consignment, so the product inventory at the customer, the amount of organizing production according to the customer, in effect became the basis of inventory for production, either from customers or benefit both the enterprise itself. Because, according to the development trend of modern manufacturing, as far as possible to maintain the stability of enterprises and their supply chain flexibility, the lower their operating costs to be effective.

銆怐elivery銆?products shipped after the completion of a test of storage, shipment delivery process. There are many ways to ship management, if exports experienced a longer period. Many companies use third-party logistics to complete delivery, this session there are also many to be tapped.

銆?銆怑RP system application of the results from the perspective of management information systems, in order to reduce the lead time, companies can be significantly improved in these areas, such as the demand for critical resources and materials, synchronization of programs; by APS to show the dynamic lead time; gradually achieve paperless transactions; achieve with suppliers and customers to achieve long-term understanding of interaction between a compressed period of time throughout the supply chain; improve the long-term planning process; to strengthen equipment management and crisis management of assets.

The lead time reduction and improved manufacturing direct means to enhance rapid response capabilities, rather than passive constrained by market demand, as the enterprise's own initiative for change to improve, by reducing the lead time is not a link or a sector responsibility, but consider the whole enterprise, as it should for increasing the competitiveness of enterprises to consider, after all, in quality and price comparable circumstances, the early period is important customer concern in the would have to reduce its product to the ultimate customer lead time. Because the consultation has been published Han Road, leading to the first world-class manufacturing practice (how to reduce operating costs) and the second practice (how to exceed customer expectations), so this will be how to reduce the lead as the third practice will be followed More articles on launch of.


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